Thursday, June 24, 2010

Sources of Air Pollution

Sources of Air Pollution
Emissions inventories are not routinely compiled in the FIGURE 2.2
country but are conducted mostly on ad hoc basis for academic Contribution of Major Sectors of the Economy to SO2 and NO2
Emissions in Sri Lanka, 1997
purposes. Emissions inventories compiled by different groups
also vary in terms of sectors, pollutants, and base years covered. (a) SO2
It is also unclear whether these emissions inventories follow
the same methodologies. Fuel conversion
For 1997, emissions inventory of suspended particulate matter Domestic
(SPM) indicate that biomass burning contributes a large Power generation
percentage (87.1%) to the total (Figure 2.1). On the other hand,
transport sector emissions contribute the most emissions for
SO2 and NO2 (Figure 2.2). 48%
Contribution of Major Sectors of the Economy to SPM Emissions
in Sri Lanka, 1997 (b) NO2
Fuel conversion
Industry Power generation 0.1% Industry
5.2% 0.3%
Power generation
Biomass burning 13.7%
Vehicular traffic
SPM = suspended particulate matter SO2 = Sulfur dioxide; NO2 = Nitrogen dioxide
Source: Male Declaration, 2000. Source: Male Declaration, 2000.
Sri Lanka’s energy mix has been changing from high Through a technical assistance from the International Atomic
dependence on hydropower to increasing use of thermal power. Energy Agency, which started in 1998, the capacity of Sri Lanka
It is expected then that electricity generation, particularly to conduct source apportionment using nuclear analytical
from thermal power plants, can potentially contribute to techniques has been enabled. In a monitoring study conducted
air pollution. Of the installed 2,483 MW electric generation between May 2002 and August 2004, it was revealed that
capacity in Sri Lanka, almost 50% comes from thermal power 40% of PM10 fraction is composed of PM2.5 and that black
generation. Table 2.1 shows that emissions inventory of carbon measurements of the filters indicate that combustion
pollutants from these thermal power plants are increasing in sources dominate (two thirds of total PM2.5) the fine fraction
both the western province and Colombo district areas. (Seneviratne et al 2004).

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